Catalytic hydrogenation is a method that can reduce compounds by a simple experimental procedure. Catalytic hydrogenation is also known as catalytic reduction.

Catalytic hydrogenation is a method of reacting with hydrogen (H2). Catalytic reduction causes hydrogen to be added to the compound and the shape of the molecule is changed.

In catalytic reduction, the reagent used is almost exclusively palladium on carbon (Pd/C). However, there are several types of reactions in catalytic hydrogenation. It is necessary to learn beforehand what kind of reduction reaction will occur for which functional group. This allows for the synthesis and deprotection of alkanes.

In this section, we will explain the synthesis method using catalytic reduction, including the reaction mechanism.

Catalytic Hydrogenation with Palladium on Carbon (Pd/C)

Compounds can be reduced by using a reducing agent. However, instead of using these reducing agents, catalytic hydrogenation uses hydrogen and a metal catalyst to carry out the synthesis. The addition reaction with hydrogen changes the shape of the molecule.

A metal catalyst frequently used in organic chemistry is palladium. Palladium on carbon is one of the palladium catalysts, and palladium on carbon (Pd/C) is a substance made by adsorbing palladium onto activated carbon.

In catalytic reduction, palladium on carbon is used mostly for synthetic reactions. In some cases, it is necessary to use another palladium catalyst, called a Lindlar catalyst, to synthesize alkenes (double bonds) from alkynes (triple bonds), for example.

However, it is important to understand that, unless there is a specific reason, the synthetic reaction by catalytic hydrogenation uses palladium on carbon.

Reaction Mechanism for Reduction of Compounds by Syn-Addition

Then, what kind of reaction mechanism is used for the catalytic reduction? The reduction reaction proceeds by adding a metal catalyst (palladium on carbon) to react with the compound while it is filled with hydrogen.

In catalytic reduction, the synthetic reaction takes place at the surface of the palladium on carbon. Initially, hydrogen (H2) is adsorbed on the surface of the palladium on carbon. Subsequently, the compound coordinates with the palladium on carbon, which results in the addition of hydrogen to the molecule.

For example, in catalytic hydrogenation to a double bond, the reaction mechanism is as follows.

Since it reacts with the hydrogen atoms adsorbed on the metal, hydrogen will be added in the same direction. Synthesis proceeds by syn-addition, not by anti-addition.

Types of Synthetic Reactions Possible with Catalytic Reduction

What types of synthetic reactions are involved in catalytic reduction? The reaction mechanism is simple: hydrogen is added. However, there are many different types of synthetic reactions possible with catalytic hydrogenation, and each of these reactions must be learned.

The important synthetic reactions in catalytic hydrogenation are as follows.

  • Alkenes and alkynes to alkanes.
  • Synthesis of alkenes with Lindlar catalyst
  • Deprotection of benzyl groups
  • Reduction of nitro groups and imines
  • Alcohol synthesis of aldehydes and ketones

It is essential to understand all these reactions when performing catalytic hydrogenation. If you want to make a double bond into a single bond and you do a synthetic reaction, but there are nitro groups in the molecule, for example, the nitro groups are converted to amino groups.

Since catalytic reduction reacts with hydrogen, there is no steric hindrance. Also, there is almost no selectivity for functional groups. Since any synthetic reactions that occur in catalytic hydrogenation proceed, it is necessary to understand what kind of reduction reactions take place.

Conversion of Alkenes (Double Bond) and Alkynes (Triple Bond) to Alkanes

When reducing by catalytic hydrogenation, the typical method is the synthesis of alkanes. If there are double or triple bonds in the molecule, single-bonded compounds can be synthesized by catalytic reduction.

As mentioned above, there is no steric hindrance and no functional group selectivity, and if alkenes or alkynes are present in the molecule, all multiple bonds can be converted to single bonds by catalytic hydrogenation.

The reaction mechanism is not difficult and, as mentioned earlier, hydrogen molecules are added by syn-addition. As a result, alkenes and alkynes are converted to alkanes.

When alkynes (triple bonds) are reduced by catalytic reduction, it is impossible to stop their synthesis with alkenes (double bonds) using palladium on carbon (Pd-C). Any multiple bonds present in the molecule are converted to alkanes (single bonds).

Synthesis of cis (Z) Alkenes from Alkynes with Lindlar Catalyst

In catalytic reduction, the synthetic reaction proceeds by regioselectivity through syn-addition. In that case, is it possible to react with alkynes to obtain alkenes (double bonds)?

As mentioned above, this is not possible when using palladium on carbon. Instead, it is possible to synthesize alkenes (double bonds) from alkynes (triple bonds) by using a Lindlar catalyst.

The Lindlar catalyst also uses palladium as a catalyst. Instead of containing activated carbon, the Lindlar catalyst is a mixture of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and palladium. In addition, Lindlar catalyst is reduced by the addition of lead acetate and quinoline.

Adding a substance to a catalyst to reduce its action is called catalyst poisoning. Lead acetate and quinoline have catalyst poisoning effect and can reduce the catalytic ability.

Why are they superior when the action of the catalyst is weakened by poisoning? The reason is that the weakening of the Lindlar catalyst slows down the speed at which alkenes (double bonds) are synthesized into alkanes (single bonds).

Therefore, using a Lindlar catalyst, alkenes can be synthesized from alkynes by syn-addition. All the compounds synthesized are cis (Z-form).

One way to obtain alkenes in a Z-selective manner, with no trans compounds (E) being formed, is to utilize Lindlar catalysts. Although a strong catalyst will allow the reaction to proceed to alkanes, the synthetic reaction is stopped by a compound with a double bond in the Lindlar catalyst.

Use of Palladium on Carbons in Deprotection of Benzyl Groups

Catalytic reduction is also very important when you want to deprotection. This is because benzyl groups are frequently used as protecting groups for alcohols.

Alcohols are polarized and are known to be highly reactive functional groups. So, to prevent side reactions, the alcohol is protected by a benzyl group. If the alcohol is made into a benzyl ether, the reactivity of the hydroxy group (-OH) is eliminated and no side reactions can occur.

When the benzyl group is used as a protecting group, the method of deprotection is catalytic reduction. After mixing hydrogen and palladium on carbon (Pd/C), the benzyl group is removed by the reaction.

Benzyl groups have the advantage that the protecting group is difficult to remove under a variety of conditions, including acidic and basic. Deprotection of benzyl groups is difficult to achieve without catalytic reduction. On the other hand, the only option for deprotection is catalytic hydrogenation, and the lack of options for deprotection is a disadvantage.

Reduction of Nitro Groups and Imines to Obtain Amines

In the reduction of functional groups, catalytic reduction is also used for nitro groups and imines. In particular, catalytic hydrogenation is frequently used to reduce nitro groups to yield amines.

There are several methods for reducing nitro groups and amines. Among them, catalytic hydrogenation is one of the most convenient method. All that is required is to fill with hydrogen gas, add palladium on carbon and stir. Moreover, work-up after the end of the reaction is simple.

By the catalytic reduction, the nitro group becomes an amino group as shown below.

When reducing nitro groups and imines, a highly useful synthetic reaction is catalytic hydrogenation.

Dehalogenation of the Benzene Ring

Halogens bound to the benzene ring are also reduced by catalytic reduction. Among the halogens, the fluorine atom (F) is not affected by the use of palladium on carbon. However, chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I) atoms can be dehalogenated.

For example, catalytic reduction of chlorobenzene yields benzene as shown below.

In any case, it is important to understand that Cl, Br, and I, which are bound to the benzene ring, will be replaced by hydrogen atoms through catalytic reduction.

-Tin Chloride (SnCl2) Does Not Reduce the Halogens on the Benzene Ring

How can it be reduced without affecting the halogens on the benzene ring? In this case, the synthesis is carried out by a method different from that of catalytic reduction.

For example, tin chloride (SnCl2) is a known reagent that can reduce the molecule. By using tin chloride, the halogen on the benzene ring is not reduced, but the other parts of the molecule can be reduced. For example, an amino group can be synthesized by reducing a nitro group without hydrogen substitution of the halogen, as shown below.

Catalytic reduction is frequently used because it is a simple method, but it is necessary to use different reduction methods depending on the compound.

Reduction of Aldehyde or Ketone to Alcohol or Methylene

Compounds with aldehydes (formyl groups) and ketones (carbonyl groups) can also be reduced by catalytic hydrogenation. The reduction yields either an alcohol or a methylene compound.

Whether the resulting compounds are alcohols or methylenes depends on the type of palladium on carbon used and the reaction conditions.

There are different types of palladium on carbon (Pd/C). Therefore, depending on which palladium on carbon you use, you will either get an alcohol or it will be reduced to methylene.

We will not explain the differences between them, as they are quite niche. What is important is the fact that aldehydes and ketones can be reduced by catalytic reduction. As to what type of palladium on carbon can be used to make the product into alcohol or ethylene, read the paper and find out for yourself before you experiment.

-Esters and Carboxylic Acids Cannot Be Reduced

The functional groups that are reduced in carbonyl compounds are aldehydes and ketones. Esters and carboxylic acids are not reduced by catalytic reduction.

If they have a C=O structure, they are not necessarily reduced to alcohols or methylene. It is important to understand that esters and carboxylic acids are not affected by reduction through catalytic hydrogenation.

In the case of esters and carboxylic acids, hydride reducing agents are used in the reduction reaction. The hydride reducing agent is a different reaction from the catalytic hydrogenation, and it is important to use a different reduction reaction depending on the compound you want to synthesize.

Understanding the Reactions That Occur in Catalytic Hydrogenation

One of the most frequently used organic synthesis reactions is catalytic hydrogenation. It is used to synthesize alkanes, deprotection, and many other occasions. Palladium on carbon is mainly used, but when synthesizing alkenes from alkynes, a Lindlar catalyst is used.

All of the types of catalytic reduction that have been mentioned so far need to be memorized. This is because it is difficult to control only certain reactions.

For example, if there is a benzyl group and a nitro group in the molecule, both substituents will be reduced by catalytic reduction. To reduce only one of the substituents, an alternative synthesis method must be considered. Remembering the reduction reactions possible by catalytic hydrogenation will allow you to choose the best synthesis method.

One method of synthesis used in all organic chemistry laboratories is catalytic reduction. Use catalytic hydrogenation to get the desired compounds.